The City of Bellingham encompasses eight watersheds and their associated streams (Figure 1).
Most of the City’s stream reaches are fish-bearing and support populations of both anadromous and resident salmon and trout. When streams cross roadways and other infrastructure, they often pass through a culvert. Some culverts allow water to pass downstream, but are too narrow, too long, too steep, or installed too high above the water surface for a salmon to be able to travel upstream.
Effects on Salmon
Some culverts allow water to pass downstream, but are too narrow, too long, too steep, or installed too high above the water surface for a salmon to be able to travel upstream. Culverts that were not designed or installed correctly, or that have been intentionally or unintentionally altered, often prevent upstream and/or downstream fish passage. A single culvert can block fish from utilizing miles of stream habitat. These same fish-blocking culverts often present maintenance, erosion, and flooding concerns because of their inability to transport flood water, sediment and other suspended debris downstream. Improving these culverts is a cost-effective approach to increasing habitat for fish and improving overall stream function. These same fish-blocking culverts often present maintenance, erosion, and flooding concerns because of their inability to transport flood water, sediment and other suspended debris downstream.
Culvert Projects in Bellingham
As documented in the City’s Comprehensive Plan, the City is committed to stewarding fish and wildlife habitat, including fish-bearing streams. As part of this commitment, in 2003 the City of Bellingham formally began a culvert improvement program. The purpose of the program is to identify high priority barrier improvement projects for planning and implementation. This program helps meet the goals and policies of the Bellingham Comprehensive Plan as well as the goals and objectives of the City of Bellingham Comprehensive Stormwater Plan (PDF).
In 2003, culverts were assessed and prioritized for improvement using a local decision matrix. The City updated this approach to incorporate additional information and maintain consistency with local, State, and Federal guidance in 2010, 2011, 2014, and 2019. The City continues to update the City-wide prioritization on a regular basis. For more information, please see the culvert prioritization reports below.
Thus far the City has replaced or retrofitted over 20 culverts to facilitate fish passage. Please see our Habitat Restoration Projects webpage for descriptions of many of these projects.
The photos below show the removal of a fish barrier in Padden Creek as part of the Padden Creek Daylighting project. The first photo shows salmon gathered at the Padden tunnel outlet before the project, unable to easily move through the tunnel. The second photo shows the same general area after the project replaced the fish barrier with a new daylighted channel.
- City of Bellingham Stormwater Management Program
- City of Bellingham Fish and Wildlife Habitat
- City of Bellingham Fish Studies
- WDFW Fish Passage Info
- WDFW Fish Passage Assessment Protocol and Inventory Map
- WRIA 1 Nooksack Basin Salmon Recovery
Analiese Burns, Habitat and Restoration Manager
Public Works Department, Natural Resources
(360) 778-7968, firstname.lastname@example.org